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浅谈matplotlib默认字体设置探索

2021-02-03 11:55:32 来源:易采站长站 作者:

浅谈matplotlib默认字体设置探索,字体,列表,名称,方法,优先级

浅谈matplotlib默认字体设置探索

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控制默认字体的设置

根据官方文档https://matplotlib.org/tutorials/text/text_props.html#default-font可知:

The base default font is controlled by a set of rcParams

默认字体是由一组rcParams控制的。

rcParam usage
‘font.family' List of either names of font or {‘cursive', ‘fantasy', ‘monospace', ‘sans', ‘sans serif', ‘sans-serif', ‘serif'}
‘font.style' The default style, ex ‘normal', ‘italic'
‘font.variant' Default variant, ex ‘normal', ‘small-caps' (untested)
‘font.stretch' Default stretch, ex ‘normal', ‘condensed' (incomplete)
‘font.weight' Default weight. Either string or integer
‘font.size' Default font size in points. Relative font sizes (‘large', ‘x-small') are computed against this size

我们最关心的当然是'font.family','font.family'的取值有三种:

单一字体名称。 字体名称列表。 {'cursive', 'fantasy', 'monospace', 'sans', 'sans serif', 'sans-serif', 'serif'}中的某一个值。

对于字体名称,可以通过ttflist获取。

from matplotlib.font_manager import fontManager 
fontManager.ttflist

对于{'cursive', 'fantasy', 'monospace', 'sans', 'sans serif', 'sans-serif', 'serif'} ,它与实际字体名称之间的映射关系由以下rcParams控制:

family alias rcParam with mappings
‘serif' ‘font.serif'
‘monospace' ‘font.monospace'
‘fantasy' ‘font.fantasy'
‘cursive' ‘font.cursive'
{‘sans', ‘sans serif', ‘sans-serif'} ‘font.sans-serif'

'font.sans-serif'等取值其实都代表一个字体列表。

如何设置默认字体

官方文档给出了设置默认字体的方法建议:

To set the default font to be one that supports the code points you need, prepend the font name to ‘font.family' or the desired alias lists
matplotlib.rcParams[‘font.sans-serif'] = [‘Source Han Sans TW', ‘sans-serif']
or set it in your .matplotlibrc file:
font.sans-serif: Source Han Sans TW, Arial, sans-serif
To control the font used on per-artist basis use the ‘name', ‘fontname' or ‘fontproperties' kwargs documented above.

通过常见的方法设置: matplotlib.rcParams['font.sans-serif'] = ['Source Han Sans TW', 'sans-serif'] 设置.matplotlibrc文件

.matplotlibrc文件中的字体设置

配置文件中重要的就是'font.sans-serif'等字体家族列表,列表是有优先级的,越靠前字体的优先级越高,所有很多教程中都要求把需要设置的字体设置为列表的第一个元素。

## ***************************************************************************
## * FONT                                  *
## ***************************************************************************
## The font properties used by `text.Text`.
## See https://matplotlib.org/api/font_manager_api.html for more information
## on font properties. The 6 font properties used for font matching are
## given below with their default values.
##
## The font.family property has five values:
##   - 'serif' (e.g., Times),
##   - 'sans-serif' (e.g., Helvetica),
##   - 'cursive' (e.g., Zapf-Chancery),
##   - 'fantasy' (e.g., Western), and
##   - 'monospace' (e.g., Courier).
## Each of these font families has a default list of font names in decreasing
## order of priority associated with them. When text.usetex is False,
## font.family may also be one or more concrete font names.
##
## The font.style property has three values: normal (or roman), italic
## or oblique. The oblique style will be used for italic, if it is not
## present.
##
## The font.variant property has two values: normal or small-caps. For
## TrueType fonts, which are scalable fonts, small-caps is equivalent
## to using a font size of 'smaller', or about 83%% of the current font
## size.
##
## The font.weight property has effectively 13 values: normal, bold,
## bolder, lighter, 100, 200, 300, ..., 900. Normal is the same as
## 400, and bold is 700. bolder and lighter are relative values with
## respect to the current weight.
##
## The font.stretch property has 11 values: ultra-condensed,
## extra-condensed, condensed, semi-condensed, normal, semi-expanded,
## expanded, extra-expanded, ultra-expanded, wider, and narrower. This
## property is not currently implemented.
##
## The font.size property is the default font size for text, given in pts.
## 10 pt is the standard value.
##
## Note that font.size controls default text sizes. To configure
## special text sizes tick labels, axes, labels, title, etc, see the rc
## settings for axes and ticks. Special text sizes can be defined
## relative to font.size, using the following values: xx-small, x-small,
## small, medium, large, x-large, xx-large, larger, or smaller

#font.family: sans-serif
#font.style:  normal
#font.variant: normal
#font.weight: normal
#font.stretch: normal
#font.size:  10.0

#font.serif:   DejaVu Serif, Bitstream Vera Serif, Computer Modern Roman, New Century Schoolbook, Century Schoolbook L, Utopia, ITC Bookman, Bookman, Nimbus Roman No9 L, Times New Roman, Times, Palatino, Charter, serif
#font.sans-serif: DejaVu Sans, Bitstream Vera Sans, Computer Modern Sans Serif, Lucida Grande, Verdana, Geneva, Lucid, Arial, Helvetica, Avant Garde, sans-serif
#font.cursive:  Apple Chancery, Textile, Zapf Chancery, Sand, Script MT, Felipa, cursive
#font.fantasy:  Comic Neue, Comic Sans MS, Chicago, Charcoal, ImpactWestern, Humor Sans, xkcd, fantasy
#font.monospace: DejaVu Sans Mono, Bitstream Vera Sans Mono, Computer Modern Typewriter, Andale Mono, Nimbus Mono L, Courier New, Courier, Fixed, Terminal, monospace

通过rc函数设置默认字体属性的方法

根据文档可知
传统的字体设置方法plt.rcParams['font.sans-serif'] = ['simhei']等价于

font = {'sans-serif' : ['simhei']}
plt.rc('font', **font) 
matplotlib.pyplot.rc(group, **kwargs)
Set the current rcParams. group is the grouping for the rc, e.g., for lines.linewidth the group is lines, for axes.facecolor, the group is axes, and so on. Group may also be a list or tuple of group names, e.g., (xtick, ytick). kwargs is a dictionary attribute name/value pairs, e.g.,:
rc('lines', linewidth=2, color='r')
sets the current rcParams and is equivalent to:
rcParams['lines.linewidth'] = 2
rcParams['lines.color'] = 'r'

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